A dedication to Zeus Hypsistos at Dion


Among the votive images in the sanctuary of Zeus Hypsistos in Dion is that of Lucius Trebius Leo. The monument, composed of three parts, features an Ionic capital of white marble attached to a smooth, unfluted column of green marble. On top of the capital sits an eagle, also made of white marble, with outstretched wings. The lower part of the column is missing, as is the eagle’s head.

The offering was probably placed at the eastern end of the processional road (sacred way) that led from the south to the sanctuary. Votive offerings to Zeus Hypsistos on freestanding columns are also known from other parts of Macedonia. The eagle is the predominant symbol of the father of the gods, whose will he conveys to mortals. As shown by a relatively large number of votive offerings from various Macedonian cities, sometimes the eagle accompanies the representation of the god, and sometimes it is a symbolic representation of the latter.

In the absence of other evidence, the monument can be dated to about 100-150 A.D. on the basis of paleography, i.e. the shape of the letters and the arrangement of the text on the stone.

L(ucius) Trebius Leo [made this dedication] to Zeus Hypsistos because he vowed [it]


The dedicator of the monument is not known from other sources. He was a Roman citizen, as shown by the use of Roman nomenclature, i.e., he bears praenomen (Λούκιος = Lucius), gentilicium (Τρέβιος = Trebius), and cognomen (Λέων). Although the Greek name Λέων is attested in the Greek and Roman world, there is only one other record of the gentilicium Trebius in Macedonia, namely in Thessalonica. The diffusion of the name in the rest of the Greek world is also limited. The few examples are found mainly in Rhodes and Ankara, as well as in Kos. The Trebii of Kos are among the families of Roman traders who settled on the island. It is possible that Lucius Trebius Leo from Dion also belonged to a Roman trader family that moved to Macedonia.